Wednesday, April 18, 2012

Food Substitutes

How many time have you wanted to make something and find you don’t have what you need in your pantry to make it?  This is an attempt to give you substitutes you might have so you can make the recipe without running to the store. 


Buttermilk - (just under one cup) and 1 tablespoon white vinegar or lemon juice
Place a tablespoon of white vinegar or lemon juice in a liquid measuring cup.  Add enough milk to bring the liquid up to the one-cup line.  Let stand for five minute.

Skim milk – 1 cup skim equals 1/3 cup instant nonfat dry milk plus about 3/4 cup water.

Whole milk – 1 cup equals 1 cup skim milk plus 2 teaspoons melted butter;
1 cup equals 1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water;  1 cup equals 1/4 cup dry whole milk plus 7/8 cup water;  1 cup equals 1 cup reconstituted nonfat dry milk plus 2 1/2 teaspoons melted butter or margarine;  1 cup equals 1 cup soy milk: in baking you may substitute 1 cup fruit juice for 1 cup milk.

Yogurt  – 1 cup buttermilk equals 1 cup plain yogurt.

Condensed Milk  -2 cups powdered milk or low fat milk; 2 cups granulated sugar; ¾ to 1 cup boiling water; 2 oz. margarine or butter;  a few drops of vanilla

Put milk, sugar, boiling water, margarine and vanilla into blender.  Blend until sugar is melted and mixture is smooth.  Pour into warm sterile jars .Seal and store in refrigerator.

Butter – 1 cup equals 7/8 oil or 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons solid shortening plus 1/2 teaspoon salt. Also, 1 cup equals 1 cup margarine.  I do this all the time with recipes because my grandson can't have any dairy.  


Half and half – 1 cup equals 1 1/2 tablespoons melted butter plus about 7/8 cup milk, or use 1/2 cup light cream and 1/2 cup milk.

Heavy Cream – 1 cup heavy cream equals 3/4 cup milk plus 1/3 cup melted butter. (But do not try to whip this.  It will not work.)

Whipping Cream – 1 cup whipping cream equals 2/3 cup well chilled evaporated milk, whipped, or 1 cup nonfat dry milk powder whipped with 1 cup ice water.

Sour Cream  – 1 cup cultured sour cream equals 1/3 cup melted butter plus 3/4 cup buttermilk or plain yogurt. For dips, 1 cup equals 1 cup cottage cheese pureed with 1/4 cup yogurt or buttermilk, or 6 ounces cream cheese plus enough milk to make 1 cup.


For thickening – In sauces and custards, 2 egg yolks equals 1 egg.
For baking – 2 egg yolks plus 1 tablespoon cold water equals 1 egg.
For measuring – 1 1/2 tablespoons stirred egg yolks equals 1 egg yolk;
2 tablespoons stirred egg whites equals 1 egg white;
3 tablespoons mixed broken yolks and whites equals 1 medium size egg;
6 medium eggs equal about 1 cup;
5 large eggs equal about 1 cup;


Carob Powder – 3 tablespoons plus 2 tablespoons water equals 1 ounce unsweetened chocolate.

Chocolate  – For 1 square semi-sweetened chocolate, use 3 tablespoons cocoa plus 1 tablespoon butter or margarine plus 3 tablespoons sugar.

Chocolate - 1 ounce unsweetened equals 3 tablespoons carob powder plus 2 tablespoons water; 1 ounce unsweetened equals 3 tablespoons cocoa plus 1 tablespoon butter or other kind of fat; 1 ounce unsweetened plus 4 teaspoons sugar equals 1 2/3 ounces semi-sweet chocolate.

Coffee – 1/2 cup strong brewed coffee equals 1 teaspoon instant coffee in 1/2 cup water.

Garlic  – 1 clove equals 1/8 teaspoon garlic powder or instant minced garlic.

Ginger  – 1 tablespoon grated fresh equals 1 teaspoon powdered or 1 tablespoon
candied with sugar washed off.

Herbs – In general, 1 tablespoon fresh equals about 1/2 teaspoon dried.

Mustard  – 1 tablespoon prepared equals 1 teaspoon dried. For 1 tablespoon mustard, use 1 teaspoon dry mustard plus 1 tablespoon vinegar or white wine.

Onion – 1 small fresh chopped onion equals 1 tablespoon instant minced onion or 1/4 cup frozen chopped onion; 1 tablespoon onion powder equals 1 medium-sized fresh onion

Wine – for marinades, 1/2 cup equals 1/4 cup vinegar plus 1 tablespoon sugar plus 1/4 cup water.

Worcestershire sauce – 1 teaspoon equals 1 tablespoon soy sauce plus dash of
hot pepper sauce.


Flour for thickening – 1 tablespoon all-purpose equals 2 teaspoons quick-cooking tapioca (use only for soups); 1 tablespoon equals 1 1/2 teaspoons cornstarch or potato starch.

Cake Flour – 1 cup equals 1 cup minus 2 tablespoons sifted all-purpose flour.

All purpose flour  – 1 cup equals 1 1/4 cups cake flour;

Self Rising Flour – 1 cup all-purpose flour plus 1 1/2 teaspoon baking powder plus 1/2 teaspoon salt.


Baking Powder  – There are three ways you can substitute for baking powder, depending on the recipe:  1 teaspoon baking powder equals 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar; or, 1 teaspoon baking powder equals 1/2 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 cup buttermilk or plain yogurt: and 1 teaspoon baking powder also equals 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/3 cup molasses. When using the substitutions that include liquid, reduce other liquid in recipe accordingly.


Brown Sugar – 1 cup firmly packed equals 1 cup granulated sugar. For 1 cup brown sugar – 2 tablespoons molasses plus 1 cup white sugar. Best used in cookies and other cooked products.

Corn Syrup – 2 cups corn syrup equals 1 cup granulated sugar, but be careful when substituting. Never use corn syrup to replace more than half the amount of sugar called for in a recipe. In baking, try not to substitute at all but if you must, for each 2 cups sugar, reduce the liquid called for (other than syrup) by 1/4 cup.

Honey – 1 cup equals 1 1/4 cup sugar. For baking, decrease liquid in recipe by 1/4 cup. If there is no liquid in the recipe, add 1/4 cup flour. Unless sour cream or sour milk is used in recipe, add a pinch of baking soda.

Granulated Sugar  – 1 cup equals 1 3/4 cup confectioners’ sugar but do not substitute in baking;  1 cup equals 1 cup packed brown sugar;  1 cup equals 1 cup super-fine sugar;
1 cup plus 1/4 cup whatever liquid is used in recipe equals 1 cup corn syrup; 1 1/4 cups sugar plus 1/3 cup liquid equals 1 cup honey; 3/4 cup sugar equals 1 cup unsulphured molasses (in baking, decrease liquid for each cup of molasses, omit any baking powder and add 1/2 teaspoon baking soda.)

Maple Syrup  – 1 cup equals 1/2 cup maple sugar. To substitute for sugar in cooking, generally use only 3/4 cup maple syrup for sugar. To substitute maple syrup for sugar in baking, use the same proportions, but reduce the other liquid called for in the recipe by about 3 tablespoons for every cup of syrup substituted.


Ketchup – 1/2 cup equals 1/2 cup tomato sauce plus 2 tablespoons sugar, 1 tablespoon vinegar and 1/8 teaspoons ground cloves; 1 tablespoon equals 1 tablespoon tomato paste.

Tomatoes  – 1 cup canned tomatoes equals 1 1/3 cups chopped fresh tomatoes, simmered

Tomato Juice – 1 cup tomato juice equals 1/2 cup tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup water plus dash of salt and sugar. Or use one part tomato paste to three parts water plus salt and sugar.

Tomato Sauce – 1 cup equals 1 (6 ounce) can tomato paste plus 1 1/2 cans water. Or 2 cups equals 3/4 cup tomato paste plus 1 cup water.

Tomato Soup – 1 (10 3/4 ounce) can equals 1 cup tomato sauce plus 1/4 cup water.

Bread Crumbs

1 slice bread equals 1/4 cup dry bread crumbs;
1 slice bread equals 1/2 cup soft bread crumbs;
1 cup dry bread crumbs equals 3/4 cup cracker crumbs.

If you can think of any more please share.  

Be happy and may God bless you and yours.  

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